Amygdala : Anatomy, Location & Function
Amygdala: The amygdala is one of two almondlike shapes of nuclei positioned deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain, just anterior to the hippocampus. The amygdala is part of the limbic system, Amygdala, region of the brain primarily associated with the processing of memory, decision-making, and emotional responses.
Although historically the amygdala was thought to be connected principally in fear and other emotions related to unpleasant stimuli, it is now understood to be related to positive emotions evoked by appetitive (rewarding) stimuli.
The amygdala contains a group of nuclei or the clusters of neurons. Among these nuclei are the basolateral complex, the medial nucleus, the cortical nucleus, the central nucleus, and the intercalated cell clusters. The basolateral complex can be moreover distributed into the lateral, basal and the accessory basal nuclei.
The lateral nucleus is the significant recipient of input from sensory cortices (represent sensory stimuli information) of all modalities (e.g., vision, hearing). In appreciation, it has been established that auditory stimuli arrive in the amygdala directly from a subcortical area of the brain known as the medial geniculate nucleus, which is found in the thalamus.
The cortical and medial nuclei also known as the cortico-medial group. Olfactory (smelling) information emerges directly into the cortico-medial amygdala from the olfactory bulb and pyriform cortex, both of function is the sense of smell.
In computing to sensory input, the amygdala gets input from a number of cortical and the subcortical brain systems. Most prominently, the amygdala gets dense input from the prefrontal cortex, particularly from the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices. The amygdala additionally receives noticeable input from the insula and from the hippocampus and the rhinal (olfactory) cortices.
The output from the amygdala can be regulated to both subcortical and cortical brain fabrications. The central nucleus remains directed to numerous subcortical structures associated to mediate different physiologic, autonomic, and behavioral expressions of emotional state. The basal and the accessory-basal nuclei are significant outputs of the amygdala delivered to the cerebral cortex. The anatomical prominences may carry the role of the amygdala in changing cognitive processes such as decision making, memory, and attention.
The amygdala is capable of the perception of emotions such as fear, anger, and sadness, also controlling of aggression. The amygdala supports to store memories of events and emotions so that a person may be capable to understand similar events in the future. For instance, if you possess ever suffered a dog bite, formerly the amygdalae may assist in processing that event and, consequently, increase your fear or watchfulness neighboring dogs. The amount of the amygdala is positively connected with raised aggression and physical behavior.The amygdala also performs a function in sexual activity. It can vary in size and shape based on the age, hormonal activity, and gender of the individual person. For instance, males who possess low testosterone, or who become castrated, (had their testicles removed), tend to possess smaller amygdalae, and, in turn, may become a lower sex drive.